Handbook for Writers from Excellence in Literature

Handbook for Writers: Excellence in Literature

$39.00

The Excellence in Literature Handbook for Writers is a unique one-stop reference for how to write essays, as well as a guide for punctuation, style, and usage.

Paperbound; 8.5 x 11″; 420 pages

Product Description

Finally, a writer’s handbook that goes from high school into college!

Need to know how to create a topic outline for an essay?

Wondering whether to put punctuation inside or outside the quotation marks?

Looking for a handy guide to written arguments, paragraph structure, and basic mechanics?

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You need the Excellence in Literature Handbook for Writers!

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This 420-page writer’s handbook has two primary sections. The first section provides detailed instructions and models (samples) for constructing arguments and writing essays, and the second part covers mechanics, including style and usage. This reference book answers the questions your student will face in high school and college classes.
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A few highlights:

— How to construct a logical, interesting argument (focus) for an essay, debate, or research paper

— How to structure different types of essays, paragraph by paragraph

— How to use inductive and deductive reasoning

— How read thoughtfully and write about literature, including short stories, full-length classics, and poetry

Topic sentence outline examples for papers in literature, social studies, public policy, and more
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The Handbook for Writers is a collaborative effort — think Strunk and White, except this one is Johnston and Campbell. Mr. Johnston is a retired college professor who generously granted me permission to adapt two of his wonderful handbooks to fit the needs of Excellence in Literature students. This is mostly his work, but I have added a few things, updated examples, and converted Canadian styles to standard, current American usage.
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I think you will find the Handbook for Writers a very useful part of your homeschool. It’s helpful in English, classes, of course, but it’s also useful for other writing and speaking your student will need to do through high school and college. If your student studies debate, the chapters on constructing an argument are very helpful. In the essay section, the sample topic sentence outlines are like a blueprint for writing success. You can even use the Handbook as you evaluate your student’s papers. This is truly a one-of-a-kind book.
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No handbook covers every single thing (though the Chicago Manual of Style, a $65 handbook for professional editors, comes pretty close), but the Excellence in Literature Handbook for Writers covers a lot of ground. At risk of making this an absurdly long page, I’ll paste the table of contents below, with a few of my favorite sections highlighted. It’s a lot of information!
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So you don’t have to scroll all the way down, here’s the page for the the print and ebook bundle. The link will open in a new window. 

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Contents of the Handbook for Writers

Introduction

Part 1 Introduction to Essays and Arguments

2.0 Arguments: Some Simple First Principles 

2.1 Initial Comments
2.2 Trivial Arguments over Matters of Established Fact
2.3 More Complex and Interesting Arguments
2.4 The Importance of Reason
2.5 An Overview of The Major Tools 
2.6 Exercise 1: Recognizing the Form of Simple Arguments
2.7 Some Brain Teasers

3.0 Setting Up The Argument: Definition (1)

3.1 Defining the Argument: Some General Points
3.2 Two Simple Examples
3.3 Some Sample Openings 
3.4 The Importance of Defining a Focus
3.5 The Importance of Defining a Thesis
3.6 Exercises in Recognizing Potentially Useful Thesis Statements
3.7 Some Hints on Forming Good Thesis Statements 
3.8 The Start of an Outline for the Argument
3.9 Some Problems with Introductory Paragraphs
3.10 Exercise With Sample Opening Paragraphs

4.0 Definition (2): Defining Key Terms

4.1 The Importance of Certain Key Terms in the Argument
4.2 Organizing Definitions
—Disputed Definitions
4.3 Self-Serving Definitions
4.5 Exercise 4: Definitions
4.6 Descriptive and Narrative Definitions
4.7 Extended Definitions
4.8 Some Summary Points on Definition
4.9 Defining the Scope of the Essay

5.0 Deduction And Induction

5.1 General Comments
5.2 Deduction: Some Points to Observe
5.3 The Opening General Principle
5.4 The Importance of Step 2 in a Deductive Argument
5.5 The Importance of Deduction in Falsification Theories of Science
5.6 The Deductive Structure of Listing the Alternatives
5.7 The Problem of Hidden or Misleading Assumptions
5.8 Exercise in Hidden Assumptions
5.9 False Dilemma
5.10 Overstating or Understating the Conclusion
5.11 Analogies 
5.12 Induction 
5.13 Making Inductive Generalizations
5.14 Exercise in Simple Inductive Argument
5.15 Some Potential Problems in Inductive Arguments
5.16 Exercise in Evaluating Short Arguments
5.17 Induction in Arguments on Literary Topics 
5.18 Deduction and Induction in Combination

6.0 Organizing The Main Body Of An Argument (I)

6.1 General Remarks
6.2 The Length of the Argument: Approximate Paragraph Count
6.3 Selecting the Topics for the Argument
6.4 Rethinking the Focus and Thesis of the Argument

6.5 Developing an Outline: Topic Sentences 

6.6 The Commonest Error in Topic Sentences

6.7 Exercise in Topic Sentences

6.8 Drawing Up a Simple Outline (for a Short Essay)

—Essay 1: On Hamlet 102
—Essay 2: On Intellectual Property Violations 102

6.9 Checking the Outline 103

6.10 Some Sample Formats for Topic Sentences 104
A. Standard Format: Interpretative Assertion (Opinion) 104
B. Standard Format Emphasized: Interpretative Assertion Followed by Clarification, Extension, or Emphasis. 104
C. Question: Simple Direct Question for Emphasis 105
D. Double Question: Two Questions, the Second Expanding on the First, for Greater Emphasis 105
E. Statement of Fact and Question: Directing the Reader to a Fact in the Argument and Raising an Issue About It 106
F. Statement of Fact and a Double Question 106

6.11 Topic Sentences to Avoid 107

7.0 Organizing The Main Body Of The Argument (Ii)

7.1 Simple Additive Structure
7.2 Acknowledging the Opposition 
7.3 The Structure of a Comparative Argument 
General Observations on Comparative Arguments
—Sample Openings to a Comparative Essay
The Structure of a Comparative Argument
7.4 Additional Samples of Outlines for Comparative Essays 

8.0 Paragraph Structure

8.1 Paragraphs in the Main Body of the Argument 
—Sample Paragraph A: Deductive Structure
—Sample Paragraph B: Inductive Structure
8.2 Paragraphs Making Inductive Argument 
Sources of Evidence
Interpreting Evidence
8.3 Some Important Symptoms of Poor Argumentative Paragraphs 
8.4 Paragraph Unity 
8.5 Paragraph Coherence 
A Useful Blueprint for Achieving Paragraph Coherence
Transition Words as Logical Indicators
—A Catalogue of Transition Words 
An Exercise in Transition Words
8.6 Concluding Paragraphs 
—Conclusion A (from an essay arguing that Hamlet’s character is not that of the ideal prince but is badly flawed)
—Conclusion B (from an essay arguing that the failure of the Meech Lake Accord was a direct result of the ineptitude of the federal government)
—Conclusion C (from an essay arguing that the only rational solution to our narcotics problem is to legalize all drugs)
8.7 Recommendations 
—Sample Conclusion and Recommendation Ending to a Paper

9.0 Paragraph Functions 

9.1 The Basic Functions of Paragraphs
9.2 Exercise in Topic Sentences Announcing the Function of a Paragraph
9.3 Organizing an Essay by Paragraph Function 
9.4 Paragraphs of Illustration, Narration, and Description
——Inserting Paragraphs of Narration, Description, or Analysis in the Middle of An Argument
——Inserting a Detailed Example into the Argument
—Essay A
—Essay B
—Example A (from an essay arguing that Descartes’s argument is problematic but interesting)
—Example B (from an essay arguing that the Chipko movement is a significant indication of the power of uneducated women to affect government policy)
—Example C (from an essay arguing that Thoreau’s Walden is a fine example of American Romanticism)
—Example D (in an essay arguing that a particular legal judgement was correct)
Setting Up a Narrative or Descriptive “Hook”

9.5 Organizing an Argument in Paragraph Clusters 

—Research Paper A: The Imagist Movement in Modern Poetry
—Research Paper 2: Modern Medicine and the Law
—Research Paper C: An Essay on William James’s “The Varieties of Religious Experience”

10.0 Writing Arguments About Literary Works 

10.1 Reading Beneath the Surface

Reading Stories
Reading Arguments

10.2 From Reading to Shaping An Evaluative Argument 

Building on Our Own Reactions
Using Comparisons

10.3 Evaluative Argument versus Prose Summaries

10.4 Structuring an Argumentative Essay on Fiction 

Essay A: On John Steinbeck’s Short Story “The Chrysanthemums”
Essay B: Short Essay on Homer
Essay C: Short Essay on a Shakespearean Play
——A Common Mistake in the Structure of An Argument About Literature

10.6 Structuring a Short Essay on the Evaluation of an Argument 

A Note on the Process of Evaluating an Argument
Evaluate Arguments from the Inside not the Outside
Select the Focus Carefully
Check Carefully Any Appeals to Context
Use Counterexamples Intelligently

10.7 Some Sample Outlines for Short Essays Evaluating Arguments 

10.8 Writing Short Arguments About Lyric Poetry

Reading a Lyric Poem
Structuring a Short Interpretative Essay on a Lyric Poem
—Sample Introduction and Outline for Essay A on a Lyric Poem
—Sample Outline for Essay B
Some Do’s and Don’t For Essays on Lyric Poems

10.9 Sample Essay on a Lyric Poem 

—Bob Dylan’s “The Tambourine Man”: An Interpretation
Notes on the Sample Essay

10.10 Writing Reviews of Fine and Performing Arts Events 

—Sample Short Review of a Dramatic Production

11.0 Sample Outlines For Essays And Research Papers (one of my favorite sections)

A. Short Book Review
B. Short Essay Reviewing a Live Drama Production
D. Short Essay on a Long Fiction
E. Short Essay Evaluating an Argument in Another Text
F. Longer Essay or Research Paper on a Social Issue
G. Longer Essay or Research Paper on the Historical Significance of an Idea, Book, Person, Event, or Discovery
H. Research Paper on a Cultural Movement

Introduction to Part 2 of the Handbook for Writers: Guide to Style and Usage

Phrases, Clauses, Sentences

1.1 The Clause 
1.2 Sentence Fragments 212
1.3 Other Forms of Sentence Fragmentation 212
1.3.1 Dependent Clauses 213
1.3.2 Which, Who, Whose 213
1.3.3 Present Participles 213
1.3.4 Citing Examples 
1.3.5 Use of Bulleted Lists 213
1.3.6 In Regard /In Response 214
1.3.7 That 214
1.3.8 Quotations 
1.4 Sentences are either Statements, Questions, Commands, or Exclamations 214
1.4.1 Direct Questions 
1.4.2 Question as Imperative 215
1.5 Indirect Question 215
1.6 Question Marks in a Quotation 215
1.7 Exclamation Points 216
1.8 Subject/Verb Agreement 216
1.9 Compound Subject 
1.10 Compound Subject as a Single Unit 217
1.11 Plural Forms that take Singular Subjects 217
1.12 Group Nouns 217
1.13 Consistency 217
1.14 There Is / There Was 218
1.15 Indefinite Pronouns 218
1.16 Number 
1.17 Compound Subjects 219
1.18 Alternate Subjects 219
1.19 Passive Verbs 219
1.20 Verb Consistency 221
1.21 Use of Passive Expression 221
1.22 Scientific / Technical Writing 
1.23 Avoid Passive Construction 222
1.24 Avoid the Passive To Use / To Do: 223
1.25 Verb Tense Agreement 223
1.25.1 Past Tense 223
1.25.2 Present Tense 224
1.25.3 Literary Analysis
1.25.4 Conditional Tenses 224
1.26 Verb Moods 225
1.26.1 Technical Writing 225
1.26.2 Subjunctive Usage 225
1.26.3 Recommendations and Decisions 226
1.27 Consistency of Tense / Mood 226
1.28 Sentence Classification
1.29 Compound Sentence 227
1.30 Comma Placement 228
1.31 Relationship of Clauses 229
1.32 Length of Compound Sentences 229
1.33 Compound Without Coordinating Conjunction
1.34 Use of the Semi-Colon 
1.35 Excessively Long Compound Sentences 230
1.36 Comma Splice 231
1.37 Conjunctive Adverb 231
1.38 Position of the Conjunctive Adverb 231
1.39 Complex Sentences 
1.40 Relative Position of Clauses 232

Words 

2.1 Slang 235
2.2 Colloquialisms 235
2.3 Names in Formal Writing 236
2.4 References to Authors in Analytical Writing
2.5 Colloquialism and Nicknames 236
2.6 Appropriateness of Tone 236
2.7 Gender 237
Author’s Note 238
2.8 Euphemisms / Jargon 
2.9 Wishy-Washy Words 
2.10 Technical Slang / Abbreviations 239
2.11 Be Concise 239
2.12 Simplicity of Expression 240
2.13 Unnecessary Repetition 240
2.14 Proper Use of Synonyms 241
2.15 Spelling 
2.16 “I” Before “E” 241
2.17 Frequently Misused Words 241
2.18 Plural Noun Forms 252
2.19 Foreign-Derived Word Plurals 252
—English Word 253
—English Plural 253
—Foreign Plural 253
2.20 Plurals with Apostrophe 253
2.21 Possessive Nouns 
2.22 Singular Possessives Ending in Y 254
2.23 Possessive Pronouns 
2.24 Possessives Using “Of” 254
2.25 Contractions or Omissions 255
2.26 Misuse of the Apostrophe
2.27 Compound Adjectives Using the Hyphen 255
2.28 No Hyphen Needed 256
2.29 The Hyphen as a Link 256
2.30 The Hyphen as Break 256
2.31 Compound Numbers 256
2.32 Abbreviations 
2.33 Capitalization of Abbreviations 257
2.34 Standardization of Abbreviations 257
2.35 Abbreviation Usage 258
2.36 Abbreviations to Avoid 258
2.37 Abbreviation of Units 258
2.38 Periods in Abbreviations 258
2.39 Scientific Abbreviations 259
2.40 Spacing in Units and Abbreviations 259
2.41 Abbreviations in Formal Non-Technical Writing 259
2.41.1 BC, AD, CE, a.m., p.m., $, p. 259
2.41.2 Mr, Mrs, Ms, Miss, Dr, Messrs 259
2.41.3 Placement of Honorary Abbreviations 260
2.42 Abbreviations in Titles 260
2.43 Abbreviation of Dates and Addresses 260
2.44 Abbreviation of Units of Measurement 260
2.45 Capitalization 260
2.46 Capitalization of Specific Place or Object 261
2.47 Brand Names 261
2.48 Capitalization of Headings and Titles 262
2.49 Capitalization of Seasons, Relationships, Subject Areas 262
2.50 Capital after a Colon 262
2.51 Capitalization of a Quote 262
2.52 Capitalization of Lists 263
2.53 Use of Italics in Titles 
2.54 Italics Indicate Entire Work 263
2.55 Quotation Marks for Titles of Short Works 264
2.56 Titles of Books Included in an Anthology 264
2.57 Additional Title Rules 264
2.57.1 Articles 264
2.57.2 Book Title within a Book Title 264
2.57.3 Quotation Marks within a Title 264
2.57.4 Title within an Essay Title 265
2.58 Be Clear About Titles vs. Names of Characters, Places, or Objects 265
2.59 Use of Numbers 
2.60 Specific Number Usages 265
2.60.1 Date, Time, Money, Fractions, Percents, Scores, Units, Ages 265
2.60.2 Approximate Numbers and Stand-Alone Fractions 265
2.60.3 Numbers at the Beginning of a Sentence or List 266
2.60.4 Keep Numerical Figures Distinct 266
2.60.5 Items Identified by Number 266
2.61 Special Problems 266
2.61.1 Fractions and Decimals 266
2.61.2 Decimal Numbers Less than One 266
2.61.3 Punctuation of Numbers 266

Basic Punctuation 

3.1 Sentence Ending Punctuation 267
3.2 Commas in Clauses 267
3.3 Non-Restrictive Modifiers 268
3.4 Omit Punctuation of Essential Restrictive Modifiers 269
3.5 Punctuation of Essential Names and Titles 269
3.6 Punctuation of Non-Restrictive Modifiers 270
3.7 Punctuation of Non-Restrictive Clauses 270
3.8 Punctuation of Parenthetical Comments and Conjunctive Adverbs 270
3.9 Punctuation of Items in a Parallel List 270
3.10 Use of Semi-Colons in a Parallel List 271
3.11 Punctuation in a List of Two 271
3.12 Punctuation of Coordinate Adjectives 271
3.13 Punctuation in a List of Adjectives Before a Noun 271
3.14 Punctuation of Dates 
3.15 Writing Numerical Dates 272
3.16 Writing the Date in Words 272
3.17 Using Month and Year Only 272
3.18 Writing Times 273
3.19 Punctuation of Addresses 
3.20 Punctuation of Address in a Business Letter 273
3.21 Use of the Colon Between Clauses 273
3.22 Use of the Colon in a List 273
3.23 The Colon in a Clause 274
3.23.1 Omit a Colon Between a Verb and its Object 274
3.23.2 Omit the Colon after a Present Participle 274
3.23.3 Omit the Colon after a Preposition 274
3.24 Other Uses of the Colon 274
3.24.1 Use of the Colon as Introduction 275
3.24.2 Use of the Colon to Separate Title and Subtitle 275
3.24.3 Use of the Colon for Division of Numbers 275
3.24.4 Use of the Colon in Bible References 275
3.25 Use of the Colon in a Business Salutation 275
3.26 Omit Colon at End of Heading 275
3.27 Use of the Dash
3.28 How to Indicate a Dash in Typing 276
3.29 Use of Brackets 
3.30 Always Use Brackets in Pairs 276
3.31 Use of Brackets within Brackets 276
3.32 Avoid Unnecessary Punctuation 277
3.32.1 Use of the Single Comma in a Clause 277
3.32.2 Use of the Comma in Quotations 277
3.32.3 Use of the Semi-Colon 
3.33 Use of the Quotation Mark 
3.34 Punctuation of a Quotation in a Sentence 278
3.35 Punctuation Inside Quotation Marks 279
3.36 Punctuation Before Quotations 280
3.37 Punctuation of Speaker Attribution within a Quotation 280
3.38 Quotations of Three Lines or Less 281
3.39 Quotations of More than Three Lines 281
3.40 Spacing in Quotations 
3.42 Line Endings in Poetry Quotations of Three Lines or Fewer 282
3.43 Poetry Quotations of More than Three Lines 282
3.44 Line Endings of Poetry Set in a Separate Paragraph 282
3.45 Line Endings in Prose Quotations 282
3.46 Accuracy of Quotations 283
3.47 Use of Quotations Marks for Slang 283
3.48 Use of the Ellipsis 
3.49 How to Indicate Omission of Words from a Quotation 283
3.50 Use of the Ellipsis with Short, Separate Omissions 284
3.51 Omission of Lines of Poetry 284
3.52 Selection and Framing of Quotations 
3.53 Use of the Ellipsis in the Introduction of Quotations 285
3.54 Use of Square Brackets in for Writer Comments 285
3.55 Use of Italics for Emphasis in a Quotation 286
3.56 Limits on Use of Square Brackets 286
3.57 Use of Single Quotation Marks 
3.58 Single and Double Quotation Marks at the End of a Quote 286
3.59 Do Not Substitute Single for Double Quotation Marks 287
3.60 Use of Block Quotations from a Play 287

Pronouns 

4.1 Use of the Pronoun 289
4.2 A Pronoun Must Refer to a Specific Noun 289
4.3 Use of Nouns with This, That, Which 290
4.4 Provide an Antecedent for Which 290
4.5 Avoid General Use of Your 290
4.6 Avoid General Use of It 291
4.7 Every Pronoun Must Have a Specific Antecedent 291
4.8 Pronouns Must Agree with Antecedents 292
4.9 Use of Singular Pronouns 292
4.10 Use of Gender in Pronouns 292
4.10.1 Plural Pronouns for People in General
4.10.2 Alternate Singular Pronouns for People in General 293
4.10.3 Avoid Compound Gender Expressions 293
4.11 Pronoun Usage for Each, Every, Somebody, Someone, Anyone, Everybody 
4.12 Use of Group Nouns 294
4.13 Use of Collective Group Nouns 294
4.14 Pronouns that Change Form 294
—Subject Form 294
—Object Form 294

Possessive Form 

4.15 Use of Who, Whom, Whose 
4.16 Use of Who, Whom, and Whose in Relative Clauses 295
4.17 Use of Restrictive Relative Clauses 295

Parallelism Or Parallel Structure

5.1 Parallelism in a List of Nouns 297
5.2 Maintain Parallel Form 
5.3 Parallelisms in a List of Two 298
5.4 Parallelism with Two or More Dependent Clauses 298
5.5 Parallelism in a Vertical List 299
5.6 Parallelism in Definitions 299
5.7 Parallelism in Reporting 299
5.8 Parallelism in a Numbered List 
5.9 Omit and in a Vertical List 300
5.10 Punctuation and Brackets in a List 300
5.11 Use of Margins in a Vertical List 300
5.12 Begin a Vertical List on a New Line 301
5.13 Capitalization of a Vertical List 301
5.14 Parallelism in the Use of Ordinals 301
5.15 Use of Parallel Coordinators 

Modifiers, Gerunds, Infinitives 

6.1 Use of Modifiers 303
6.2 Frequently Misused Modifiers 303
6.3 Use of the Comparative Form of a Modifier 304
6.4 Compare Only Comparable Items 
6.5 Use of the Superlative Form In the Comparison of Two Items 305
6.6 Modification of Absolute Adjectives 305
6.7 Placement of Modifiers 
6.8 Placement of Dates, Times, and Places 306
6.9 Use of Only and Merely 306
6.10 Use of the Participle 307
6.11 Use of Gerunds 308
6.12 Use of the Gerund with a Noun or Pronoun 309
6.13 Avoid Dangling Modifiers 309
6.14 Avoid Passive Verbs 310
6.15 Avoid Dangling Infinitives 310
6.16 The Infinitive as Subject or Object 
6.17 Use of Split Infinitives 311

Clarity, Logic, and Structure

7.1 Use the Right Word 
7.2 Avoid Colloquial Superlatives 313
7.3 Use Appropriate Vocabulary 314
7.4 Use Precise, Vivid Words 314
7.5 Words that Express Logical Relationships or Transitions 
7.6 Use of As 316
7.7 Use of Transitions 316
7.8 Use Simple Sentences 317
7.9 Avoid “Is Where” and “Is When” 318
7.10 Usage of “Is Because” 318
7.11 Define Key Terms 
7.12 Match Tone of Conclusion to Quality of Evidence 319
7.13 Avoid Generalizations 320
7.14 Base Conclusions on Sufficient Evidence 320
7.15 Use Reliable, Supportable Evidence
7.16 Citing Secondary Sources 322
7.17 Cite Specific Authorities and Sources 322
7.18 Avoid Unfounded Authoritative Statements
7.19 Use of Analogies 
7.20 Avoid False Dichotomy 323
7.21 Coincidence Does Not Prove Causation 
7.22 Straw Man Argument 324
7.23 Use of Red Herrings 324
7.24 Avoid Unsupported Assumptions 325
7.25 Avoid Circular Arguments 325
7.26 Use of the Opening Paragraph 
7.26.1 Include Adequate Introductory Information 326
7.26.2 Narrow the Essay Focus 327
7.26.3 Thesis in an Argumentative Essay 
7.26.4 Make Thesis Specific and Opinionated 327
7.26.5 Define the Argument in the Thesis 327
7.27 Use of Deductive Argument 
7.28 Do Not Argue Using Personal Attack 328
7.29 Principle of Inclusiveness 328
7.30 Prefer Simple Arguments 329
7.31 Consistency in Interpretation of Evidence 329
7.32 Consistency in Argumentation 329
7.33 Three Elements of a Quality Argument 
7.33.1 Topic Sentences 
7.33.2 Use of Reliable Evidence 330
7.33.2 Always Interpret Evidence 330
7.34 Use of Quotations 
7.35 Discuss Quotes Used as Evidence 331
7.36 Fabricated or Irrelevant Evidence 331
7.37 Avoid Excessive Examples 331
7.38 Use of Argument in Reviews 332
7.39 Avoid Subjective Evidence 333
7.40 Analysis of Poetry 
7.41 Identifying the Speaker of a Poem 334
7.42 Plagiarism 
7.42.1 Copying 334
7.42.2 Borrowing 334
7.42.3 Citations Within the Text 335
7.42.4 Internet Plagiarism 335

References And Bibliographies

8.1 Use of References 
8.2 Citation Methods 338
8.3 Parenthetic Reference or Footnote Systems 338
8.4 Use of a Bibliography 
8.4.1 Use Only One List of References 339
8.4.2 Use Exact Formatting 339
8.5 Use Specific Format References 339
8.6 Use of MLA and APA Systems 339
Directory of Specific MLA and APA Citations 
8.7 Reference to a Quotation from a Text With a Named Author 341
8.7.1 Pagination of Internet Sources 341
8.7.2 APA Citation of Reprinted Works 342
8.7.3 APA Citation of a Multi-Volume Work 342
8.8 Information to Include In-Text Reference 
8.9 Standard APA Reference with no Quoted Material 343
8.10 Reference (APA and MLA) to Text with No Named Author 343
8.11 Reference to the Bible 344
8.12 Reference to Poems 344
8.13 Punctuation of In-Text Citations 
8.14 Formatting of Long Quotations 345
8.15 Reference to Two Authors with the Same Surname (MLA and APA) 346
8.16 Reference to Different Works by the Same Author (MLA and APA) 346
8.17 Reference to Quoted Material from a Book not By the Author of the Quotation 346
8.18 Reference to a Text with Two Authors (MLA and APA) 347
8.19 Reference to a Text with more than Two Authors 348
8.20 Reference to Classic Plays (MLA) 348
8.21 Reference to Long Classic Poems 349
8.22 Frequency of Title Repetition in Citations 349
8.23 Combining Several Different References into One Reference 
8.24 Comma Use in Page References 349
8.25 Reference to a Multi-volume Work (MLA and APA) 349
8.26 Reference to a Classic Work of Prose (MLA) 350
8.27 Reference to an Interview or Personal Communication 350
8.28 Reference to a Corporate or Institutional Author 350
8.29 Reference to a Legal Source 351
8.30 Reference to an Electronic Source (MLA and APA) 351

Additional Notes on Citations 

8.31 References to Other Sources 351
8.32 Use of Footnotes with In-Text References 
8.32.1 Explanatory Footnotes 352
8.32.2 Reference Footnotes 352
8.32.3 Numbering of Footnotes 352
8.32.4 Order of Footnotes 352
8.32.5 Formatting of Footnotes 352
8.32.6 Indenting of Footnotes 352
8.33 Formatting of the List of Sources 
8.33.1 Alphabetization 353
8.33.2 Spacing 353
8.33.3 Page Numbers 353
8.33.4 Titles 353
8.33.5 Citation of Editions
8.33.6 Author’s Name 354
8.33.7 Publication Date 354
8.33.8 Capitalization 354
8.33.9 Titles of Short Works 355
8.33.10 Spacing After Punctuation 
8.33.11 Indenting 355
8.34 Formatting of Common Entries in List of Sources 
8.35 Book with a Single Author 357
8.35.1 Reprinted Book 358
8.35.2 New Edition of a Book 358
8.36 Book with more than One Author 358
8.37 Book with an Author and an Editor or Only an Editor 359
8.38 Article, Short Story, Essay, or Poem from an Anthology 361
8.38.1 Reprint from an Anthology 362
8.39 Multi-volume Work 362
8.40 Book with Corporate, Government, or Group Authorship 363
8.41 Article from an Academic Journal or Magazine 364
8.42 Article, Editorial, or Letter from a Newspaper 366
8.43 Citing Two or More Works by the Same Author 368
8.43.1 Ordering of Entries 368
8.43.2 C0-Written Articles 368
8.43.3 Chronological Listing of Entries 369
8.44 Text Translated into English from Another Language 369
8.45 Book Without a Named Author 370
8.46 Review of a Book, Record, or Film 370
8.47 Article from an Encyclopedia 371
8.48 Personal Interview, Telephone Call, or Letter 371
8.49 Laws, Statutes, Legal Decisions 372
8.50 Material Quoted in Secondary Source 372
8.51 Citing the Bible 
8.52 Film or Videotape 373
8.53 Television or Radio Program 373
8.54 Records, Tapes, CD’s, Live Performances 374
8.54.1 Live Performance 374
8.55 Electronic Sources 375
8.55.1 Listing URLs 
8.55.2 Personal Web Site or Blog 375
8.55.3 e-Book 376
8.55.4 Article in a Reference Database 377
8.55.5 Article from Article Index Database 378
8.55.5 Electronic Journal or Magazine Article 378
8.55.6 E-Mail 
8.55.7 Poetry Online 380
8.56 Lecture or Speech 380
8.57 Work of Art 381
8.58 Article on Microfilm or Microfiche 381
8.59 Authors with Foreign Names 382
8.60 Sample Lists of Works Cited (MLA and APA) 
8.61 Primary Source Details 384

Basic Format for Essays and Research Papers 

9.1 Basic Computer Formatting 385
9.1.1 Non-Standard Fonts and Sizes 385
9.1.2 Margins 
9.1.3 Paper Selection 385
9.2 Use a Precise Title 386
9.3 Format of the Title Page 386
9.4 Spacing 386
9.5 Numbering 386
9.6 Basic Formatting Principles 
9.6.1 Single Space After Punctuation 
9.6.2 Spacing with Various Punctuation 387
9.6.3 Use of Multiple Punctuation Marks 387
9.7 Foreign Characters 387
9.8 Math and Science Symbols 
9.9 Headings and Subheadings 387
9.9.1 Capitalization of Titles 388
9.9.2 Heading Styles 388
9.9.3 Headings at the End of a Page 388
9.9.4 Use of Text Between Heading and Subheading 388
9.9.5 Special Formatting 388
9.10 Use of Illustrative Material
9.10.1 Placement of Illustrations 388
9.10.2 Quantity and Detail of Illustrations 389
9.10.3 Place Illustration with Accompanying Text 389
9.10.4 Number and Caption 389
9.10.5 Labels and Keys 389
9.10.6 Sizing of Illustrations 389
9.10.7 Geometrical Figures 390
9.10.8 Indicating Scale in Photographs 390
9.10.9 Numbering of Material from a Secondary Source 390
9.10.10 Indication of Photograph Angle 390

The Excellence in Literature Handbook for Writers is a one-stop reference for how to write essays, a guide for punctuation, style, and usage. Keep it by your desk, as it will be frequently consulted in high school, college, and beyond!

Don’t forget! This book also comes in an ebook edition, as well as a print and ebook bundle.

Click each title below for a detailed description of the study guide.

Introduction to Literature (English 1) 
Literature and Composition (English 2)
American Literature (English 3)
British Literature (English 4)
World Literature (English 5)
The Complete Curriculum: Literature and Writing for Grades 8-12
Handbook for Writers

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